DALGARNO RESEARCH REPORTS
Dalgarno Institute Research Reports are a great resource that aims to provide current research to users. The reports take key up-to-date evidence-based data relating to Alcohol and Other Drug issues and deliver it in a format that is easier to use for reference purposes. The data may have some commentary, but is generally representative of source evidence, whilst culling the extraneous. All data in the reports is referenced and cited so as to enable the user to further investigate the topic/issue if required.
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Rates and Predictors of Conversion to Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder Following Substance-Induced Psychosis
Results: Overall, 32.2% (95% CI=29.7–34.9) of patients with a substance-induced psychosis converted to either bipolar or schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The highest conversion rate was found for cannabis-induced psychosis, with 47.4% (95% CI=42.7–52.3) converting to either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Young age was associated with a higher risk of converting to schizophrenia. Self-harm after a substance-induced psychosis was significantly linked to a higher risk of converting to both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Half the cases of conversion to schizophrenia occurred within 3.1 years after a substance-induced psychosis, and half the cases of conversion to bipolar disorder occurred within 4.4 years.
Conclusions: Substance-induced psychosis is strongly associated with the development of severe mental illness, and a long follow-up period is needed to identify the majority of cases.
Getting enough sleep – Eating right – Little Bit of exercise, and cut down on sugar and ‘screen time’ will all help Executive Function and reduce the potential for SUD?
Adolescent Executive Dysfunction in Daily Life: Relationships to Risks, Brain Structure and Substance Use.
During adolescence, problems reflecting cognitive, behavioural and affective dysregulation, such as inattention and emotional dyscontrol, have been observed to be associated with substance use disorder (SUD) risks and outcomes. Prior studies have typically been with small samples, and have typically not included comprehensive measurement of executive dysfunction domains. The relationships of executive dysfunction in daily life with performance based testing of cognitive skills and structural brain characteristics, thought to be the basis for executive functioning, have not been definitively determined. The aims of this study were to determine the relationships between executive dysfunction in daily life, measured by the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), cognitive skills and structural brain characteristics, and SUD risks, including a global SUD risk indicator, sleep quality, and risky alcohol and cannabis use. In addition to bivariate relationships, multivariate models were tested. The subjects (n = 817; ages 12 through 21) were participants in the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) study.
The results indicated that executive dysfunction was significantly related to SUD risks, poor sleep quality, risky alcohol use and cannabis use, and was not significantly related to cognitive skills or structural brain characteristics. In multivariate models, the relationship between poor sleep quality and risky substance use was mediated by executive dysfunction. While these cross-sectional relationships need to be further examined in longitudinal analyses, the results suggest that poor sleep quality and executive dysfunction may be viable preventive intervention targets to reduce adolescent substance use.
A psychological perspective on addiction – Professor Robert West
Addiction is a chronic condition, learned through experience, involving repeated powerful motivation to engage in a behaviour to an extent that causes, or risks, significant unintended harm. Addiction cannot be adequately understood in terms of any one discipline, but each of the disciplines of the behavioural and social sciences, from neuroscience to anthropology, can provide valuable insights.
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Research on Illicit Drugs
- Basic science - Bedrock of progress
- Cannabis Abusers Show Hypofrontality and Blunted Brain Responses to a Stimulant Challenge in Females but not in Males
- Chronic Methamphetamine Effects on Brain Structure and Function in Rats
- Don't Worry, Be Happy - Endocannabinoids and Cannabis at the Intersection of Stress and Reward
- Is biological ageing accelerated in drug addiction, Volkow, Klein, 2017
- Neurobiology of addiction - a neurocircuitry analysis